|City of Vancouver|
"By sea land and air we prosper"
|Coordinates: Coordinates: |
|Regional district||Metro Vancouver|
|Incorporated||April 6, 1886|
|Named for||George Vancouver|
|• Mayor||Kennedy Stewart|
|• Vancouver City Council|
|• MPs (fed.)|
|• MLAs (prov.)|
List of MLAs
|• City||115.18 km2 (44.47 sq mi)|
|• Urban||876.44 km2 (338.40 sq mi)|
|• Metro||2,878.52 km2 (1,111.40 sq mi)|
|Elevation||0–152 m (0–501 ft)|
|• City||662,248 (8th)|
|• Density||5,749.9/km2 (14,892/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||2,584/km2 (6,690/sq mi)|
|• Metro||2,642,825 (3rd)|
|Time zone||UTC−08:00 (PST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−07:00 (PDT)|
|Forward sortation area|
|Area codes||604, 778, 236, 672|
|NTS map||92G3 Lulu Island, 92G6 North Vancouver|
|GDP (Vancouver CMA)||$138.3 billion (2016)|
|GDP per capita (Vancouver CMA)||$56,159 (2016)|
|Website||City of Vancouver|
Vancouver (/vænˈkuːvər/ (listen) van-KOO-vər) is a major city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia. As the most populous city in the province, the 2021 census recorded 662,248 people in the city, up from 631,486 in 2016. The Greater Vancouver area had a population of 2.6 million in 2021, making it the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada. Vancouver has the highest population density in Canada, with over 5,400 people per square kilometre. Vancouver is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse cities in Canada: 52 percent of its residents are not native English speakers, 48.9 percent are native speakers of neither English nor French, and 50.6 percent of residents belong to visible minority groups.
Vancouver is one of the most livable cities in Canada and in the world. In terms of housing affordability, Vancouver is also one of the most expensive cities in Canada and in the world. Vancouver plans to become the greenest city in the world. Vancouverism is the city's urban planning design philosophy.
Indigenous settlement of Vancouver began more than 10,000 years ago, and the city is on the traditional and unceded territories of the Squamish, Musqueam, and Tsleil-Waututh (Burrard) peoples. The beginnings of the modern city, which was originally named Gastown, grew around the site of a makeshift tavern on the western edges of Hastings Mill that was built on July 1, 1867, and owned by proprietor Gassy Jack. The original site is marked by the Gastown steam clock. Gastown then formally registered as a townsite dubbed Granville, Burrard Inlet. The city was renamed "Vancouver" in 1886, through a deal with the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR). The Canadian Pacific transcontinental railway was extended to the city by 1887. The city's large natural seaport on the Pacific Ocean became a vital link in the trade between Asia-Pacific, East Asia, Europe, and Eastern Canada.
Vancouver has hosted many international conferences and events, including the 1954 Commonwealth Games, UN Habitat I, Expo 86, APEC Canada 1997, the World Police and Fire Games in 1989 and 2009; several matches of 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup including the finals at BC Place in Downtown Vancouver, and the 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympics which were held in Vancouver and Whistler, a resort community 125 km (78 mi) north of the city. In 1969, Greenpeace was founded in Vancouver. The city became the permanent home to TED conferences in 2014.
As of 2016[update], Port Metro Vancouver is the fourth-largest port by tonnage in the Americas, the busiest and largest in Canada, and the most diversified port in North America. While forestry remains its largest industry, Vancouver is well known as an urban centre surrounded by nature, making tourism its second-largest industry. Major film production studios in Vancouver and nearby Burnaby have turned Greater Vancouver and nearby areas into one of the largest film production centres in North America, earning it the nickname "Hollywood North".
The city takes its name from George Vancouver, who explored the inner harbour of Burrard Inlet in 1792 and gave various places British names. The family name "Vancouver" itself originates from the Dutch "van Coevorden", denoting somebody from the city of Coevorden, Netherlands. The explorer's ancestors came to England "from Coevorden", which is the origin of the name that eventually became "Vancouver".
The indigenous Squamish people who reside in a region that encompasses southwestern British Columbia including this city gave the name K'emk'emeláy̓ which means "place of many maple trees"; this was originally the name of a village inhabited by said people where a sawmill was established by one Captain Edward Stamp as part of the foundations to the British settlement later becoming part of Vancouver.
Archaeological records indicate that Aboriginal people were already living in the Vancouver area from 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. The city is located in the traditional and presently unceded territories of the Squamish, Musqueam, and Tsleil-Waututh (Burrard) peoples of the Coast Salish group. They had villages in various parts of present-day Vancouver, such as Stanley Park, False Creek, Kitsilano, Point Grey and near the mouth of the Fraser River. The region where Vancouver is currently located was referred to in contemporary Halkomelem as Lhq’á:lets, meaning "wide at the bottom/end".
Europeans became acquainted with the area of the future Vancouver when José María Narváez of Spain explored the coast of present-day Point Grey and parts of Burrard Inlet in 1791—although one author contends that Francis Drake may have visited the area in 1579.
The explorer and North West Company trader Simon Fraser and his crew became the first-known Europeans to set foot on the site of the present-day city. In 1808, they travelled from the east down the Fraser River, perhaps as far as Point Grey.
The Fraser Gold Rush of 1858 brought over 25,000 men, mainly from California, to nearby New Westminster (founded February 14, 1859) on the Fraser River, on their way to the Fraser Canyon, bypassing what would become Vancouver. Vancouver is among British Columbia's youngest cities; the first European settlement in what is now Vancouver was not until 1862 at McCleery's Farm on the Fraser River, just east of the ancient village of Musqueam in what is now Marpole. A sawmill established at Moodyville (now the City of North Vancouver) in 1863, began the city's long relationship with logging. It was quickly followed by mills owned by Captain Edward Stamp on the south shore of the inlet. Stamp, who had begun logging in the Port Alberni area, first attempted to run a mill at Brockton Point, but difficult currents and reefs forced the relocation of the operation in 1867 to a point near the foot of Dunlevy Street. This mill, known as the Hastings Mill, became the nucleus around which Vancouver formed. The mill's central role in the city waned after the arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) in the 1880s. It nevertheless remained important to the local economy until it closed in the 1920s. The settlement, which came to be called Gastown, grew quickly around the original makeshift tavern established by "Gassy" Jack Deighton in 1867 on the edge of the Hastings Mill property.
In 1870, the colonial government surveyed the settlement and laid out a townsite, renamed "Granville" in honour of the then-British Secretary of State for the Colonies, Lord Granville. This site, with its natural harbour, was selected in 1884 as the terminus for the Canadian Pacific Railway, to the disappointment of Port Moody, New Westminster and Victoria, all of which had vied to be the railhead. A railway was among the inducements for British Columbia to join the Confederation in 1871 but the Pacific Scandal and arguments over the use of Chinese labour delayed construction until the 1880s.
The City of Vancouver was incorporated on April 6, 1886, the same year that the first transcontinental train arrived. CPR president William Van Horne arrived in Port Moody to establish the CPR terminus recommended by Henry John Cambie, and gave the city its name in honour of George Vancouver. The Great Vancouver Fire on June 13, 1886, razed the entire city. The Vancouver Fire Department was established that year and the city quickly rebuilt. Vancouver's population grew from a settlement of 1,000 people in 1881 to over 20,000 by the turn of the century and 100,000 by 1911.
Vancouver merchants outfitted prospectors bound for the Klondike Gold Rush in 1898. One of those merchants, Charles Woodward, had opened the first Woodward's store at Abbott and Cordova Streets in 1892 and, along with Spencer's and the Hudson's Bay department stores, formed the core of the city's retail sector for decades.
The economy of early Vancouver was dominated by large companies such as the CPR, which fuelled economic activity and led to the rapid development of the new city; in fact, the CPR was the main real estate owner and housing developer in the city. While some manufacturing did develop, including the establishment of the British Columbia Sugar Refinery by Benjamin Tingley Rogers in 1890, natural resources became the basis for Vancouver's economy. The resource sector was initially based on logging and later on exports moving through the seaport, where commercial traffic constituted the largest economic sector in Vancouver by the 1930s.
The dominance of the economy by big business was accompanied by an often militant labour movement. The first major sympathy strike was in 1903 when railway employees struck against the CPR for union recognition. Labour leader Frank Rogers was killed by CPR police while picketing at the docks, becoming the movement's first martyr in British Columbia. The rise of industrial tensions throughout the province led to Canada's first general strike in 1918, at the Cumberland coal mines on Vancouver Island. Following a lull in the 1920s, the strike wave peaked in 1935 when unemployed men flooded the city to protest conditions in the relief camps run by the military in remote areas throughout the province. After two tense months of daily and disruptive protesting, the relief camp strikers decided to take their grievances to the federal government and embarked on the On-to-Ottawa Trek, but their protest was put down by force. The workers were arrested near Mission and interned in work camps for the duration of the Depression.
Other social movements, such as the first-wave feminist, moral reform, and temperance movements were also instrumental in Vancouver's development. Mary Ellen Smith, a Vancouver suffragist and prohibitionist, became the first woman elected to a provincial legislature in Canada in 1918. Alcohol prohibition began in the First World War and lasted until 1921, when the provincial government established control over alcohol sales, a practice still in place today. Canada's first drug law came about following an inquiry conducted by the federal minister of Labour and future prime minister, William Lyon Mackenzie King. King was sent to investigate damages claims resulting from a riot when the Asiatic Exclusion League led a rampage through Chinatown and Japantown. Two of the claimants were opium manufacturers, and after further investigation, King found that white women were reportedly frequenting opium dens as well as Chinese men. A federal law banning the manufacture, sale, and importation of opium for non-medicinal purposes was soon passed based on these revelations. These riots, and the formation of the Asiatic Exclusion League, also act as signs of a growing fear and mistrust towards the Japanese living in Vancouver and throughout BC. These fears were exacerbated by the attack on Pearl Harbor leading to the eventual internment or deportation of all Japanese-Canadians living in the city and the province. After the war, these Japanese-Canadian men and women were not allowed to return to cities like Vancouver causing areas, like the aforementioned Japantown, to cease to be ethnically Japanese areas as the communities never revived.
Amalgamation with Point Grey and South Vancouver gave the city its final boundaries not long before it became the third-largest metropolis in the country. As of January 1, 1929, the population of the enlarged Vancouver was 228,193.
Located on the Burrard Peninsula, Vancouver lies between Burrard Inlet to the north and the Fraser River to the south. The Strait of Georgia, to the west, is shielded from the Pacific Ocean by Vancouver Island. The city has an area of 114 km2 (44 sq mi), including both flat and hilly ground and is in the Pacific Time Zone (UTC−8) and the Pacific Maritime Ecozone.
Until the city's naming in 1885, "Vancouver" referred to Vancouver Island and it remains a common misconception that the city is located on the island. The island and the city are both named after Royal Navy Captain George Vancouver (as is the city of Vancouver, Washington, in the United States).
Vancouver has one of the largest urban parks in North America, Stanley Park, which covers 404.9 ha (1,001 acres). The North Shore Mountains dominate the cityscape, and on a clear day, scenic vistas include the snow-capped volcano Mount Baker in the state of Washington to the southeast, Vancouver Island across the Strait of Georgia to the west and southwest, and Bowen Island to the northwest.
The vegetation in the Vancouver area was originally temperate rainforest, consisting of conifers with scattered pockets of maple and alder and large areas of swampland (even in upland areas, due to poor drainage). The conifers were a typical coastal British Columbia mix of Douglas fir, western red cedar and western hemlock. The area is thought to have had the largest trees of these species on the British Columbia Coast. Only in Elliott Bay, Seattle, did the size of trees rival those of Burrard Inlet and English Bay. The largest trees in Vancouver's old-growth forest were in the Gastown area, where the first logging occurred and on the southern slopes of False Creek and English Bay, especially around Jericho Beach. The forest in Stanley Park was logged between the 1860s and 1880s and evidence of old-fashioned logging techniques such as springboard notches can still be seen there.
Many plants and trees growing throughout Vancouver and the Lower Mainland were imported from other parts of the continent and from points across the Pacific. Examples include the monkey puzzle tree, the Japanese maple and various flowering exotics, such as magnolias, azaleas and rhododendrons. Some species imported from harsher climates in Eastern Canada or Europe have grown to immense sizes. The native Douglas maple can also attain a tremendous size. Many of the city's streets are lined with flowering varieties of Japanese cherry trees donated from the 1930s onward by the government of Japan. These flower for several weeks in early spring each year, an occasion celebrated by the Vancouver Cherry Blossom Festival. Other streets are lined with flowering chestnut, horse chestnut and other decorative shade trees.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Vancouver is one of Canada's warmest cities in the winter. Vancouver's climate is temperate by Canadian standards and is classified as oceanic or marine west coast, (Köppen climate classification Cfb) that borders on a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Csb). While during summer months the inland temperatures are significantly higher, Vancouver has the coolest summer average high of all major Canadian metropolitan areas. The summer months are typically dry, with an average of only one in five days during July and August receiving precipitation. In contrast, the majority of days from November through March record some type of precipitation.
Vancouver is also one of the wettest Canadian cities. However, precipitation varies throughout the metropolitan area. Annual precipitation as measured at Vancouver International Airport in Richmond averages 1,189 mm (46.8 in), compared with 1,588 mm (62.5 in) in the downtown area and 2,044 mm (80.5 in) in North Vancouver. The daily maximum averages 22 °C (72 °F) in July and August, with highs rarely reaching 30 °C (86 °F).
The highest temperature ever recorded at the airport was 34.4 °C (93.9 °F) set on July 30, 2009, and the highest temperature ever recorded within the city of Vancouver was 35.0 °C (95.0 °F) occurring first on July 31, 1965, again on August 8, 1981, and also on May 29, 1983. The coldest temperature ever recorded in the city was −17.8 °C (0.0 °F) on January 14, 1950 and again on December 29, 1968.
On average, snow falls on nine days per year, with three days receiving 5 cm (2.0 in) or more. Average yearly snowfall is 38.1 cm (15.0 in) but typically does not remain on the ground for long.
Winters in Greater Vancouver are the fourth-mildest of Canadian cities after nearby Victoria, Nanaimo and Duncan, all on Vancouver Island. Vancouver's growing season averages 237 days, from March 18 until November 10. Vancouver's 1981–2010 USDA Plant Hardiness Zone ranges from 8A to 9A depending on elevation and proximity to water.
|Climate data for Richmond (Vancouver International Airport)|
Climate ID: 1108447; coordinates ; elevation: 4.3 m (14 ft); 1981-2010 normals, extremes 1898–present[a]
|Record high humidex||17.2||18.0||20.3||23.9||33.7||38.4||38.3||35.9||33.0||27.2||21.1||16.1||38.4|
|Record high °C (°F)||15.3
|Average high °C (°F)||6.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||4.1
|Average low °C (°F)||1.4
|Record low °C (°F)||−17.8
|Record low wind chill||−22.6||−21.2||−14.5||−5.4||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||−11.4||−21.3||−27.8||−27.8|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||168.4
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||157.5
|Average snowfall cm (inches)||11.1
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm)||19.5||15.4||17.7||14.8||13.2||11.5||6.3||6.7||8.3||15.4||20.4||19.7||168.9|
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm)||18.4||14.7||17.5||14.8||13.2||11.5||6.3||6.8||8.3||15.4||19.9||18.4||165.2|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm)||2.6||1.4||0.9||0.2||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.03||0.8||2.8||8.73|
|Average relative humidity (%)||81.2||74.5||70.1||65.4||63.5||62.2||61.4||61.8||67.2||75.6||79.5||80.9||70.3|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||60.2||91.0||134.8||185.0||222.5||226.9||289.8||277.1||212.8||120.7||60.4||56.5||1,937.5|
|Percent possible sunshine||22.3||31.8||36.6||45.0||46.9||46.8||59.3||62.1||56.1||36.0||21.9||22.0||40.6|
|Average ultraviolet index||1||1||3||4||6||6||7||6||4||2||1||1||4|
|Source 1: Environment and Climate Change Canada|
|Source 2: Weather Atlas(UV)|
As of 2011,[update] Vancouver is the most densely populated city in Canada. Urban planning in Vancouver is characterized by high-rise residential and mixed-use development in urban centres, as an alternative to sprawl. As part of the larger Metro Vancouver region, it is influenced by the policy direction of livability as illustrated in Metro Vancouver's Regional Growth Strategy.
Vancouver has been ranked one of the most livable cities in the world for more than a decade. As of 2019[update], Vancouver has been ranked as having the third-highest quality of living of any city on Earth. In contrast, according to Forbes, Vancouver had the fourth-most expensive real estate market in the world in 2019. Vancouver has also been ranked among Canada's most expensive cities to live in. Sales in February 2016 were 56.3 percent higher than the 10-year average for the month. Forbes also ranked Vancouver as the tenth-cleanest city in the world in 2007.
Vancouver's characteristic approach to urban planning originated in the late 1950s, when city planners began to encourage the building of high-rise residential towers in Vancouver's West End, subject to strict requirements for setbacks and open space to protect sight lines and preserve green space. The success of these dense but liveable neighbourhoods led to the redevelopment of urban industrial sites, such as North False Creek and Coal Harbour, beginning in the mid-1980s. The result is a compact urban core that has gained international recognition for its "high amenity and 'livable' development". In 2006, the city launched a planning initiative entitled EcoDensity, with the stated goal of exploring ways in which "density, design, and land use can contribute to environmental sustainability, affordability, and livability".
The Vancouver Art Gallery is housed downtown in the neoclassical former courthouse built in 1906. The courthouse building was designed by Francis Rattenbury, who also designed the British Columbia Parliament Buildings and the Empress Hotel in Victoria, and the lavishly decorated second Hotel Vancouver. The 556-room Hotel Vancouver, opened in 1939 and the third by that name, is across the street with its copper roof. The Gothic-style Christ Church Cathedral, across from the hotel, opened in 1894 and was declared a heritage building in 1976.
There are several modern buildings in the downtown area, including the Harbour Centre, the Vancouver Law Courts and surrounding plaza known as Robson Square (designed by Arthur Erickson) and the Vancouver Library Square (designed by Moshe Safdie and DA Architects), reminiscent of the Colosseum in Rome, and the recently completed Woodward's building Redevelopment (designed by Henriquez Partners Architects).
The original BC Hydro headquarters building (designed by Ron Thom and Ned Pratt) at Nelson and Burrard Streets is a modernist high-rise, now converted into the Electra condominia. Also notable is the "concrete waffle" of the MacMillan Bloedel building on the north-east corner of the Georgia and Thurlow intersection.
A prominent addition to the city's landscape is the giant tent-frame Canada Place (designed by Zeidler Roberts Partnership Partnership, MCMP & DA Architects), the former Canada Pavilion from the 1986 World Exposition, which includes part of the Convention Centre, the Pan-Pacific Hotel, and a cruise ship terminal. Two modern buildings that define the southern skyline away from the downtown area are City Hall and the Centennial Pavilion of Vancouver General Hospital, both designed by Townley and Matheson in 1936 and 1958, respectively.
A collection of Edwardian buildings in the city's old downtown core were, in their day, the tallest commercial buildings in the British Empire. These were, in succession, the Carter-Cotton Building (former home of The Vancouver Province newspaper), the Dominion Building (1907) and the Sun Tower (1911), the former two at Cambie and Hastings Streets and the latter at Beatty and Pender Streets.
The Sun Tower's cupola was finally exceeded as the Empire's tallest commercial building by the elaborate Art Deco Marine Building in the 1920s. The Marine Building is known for its elaborate ceramic tile facings and brass-gilt doors and elevators, which make it a favourite location for movie shoots. Topping the list of tallest buildings in Vancouver is Living Shangri-La at 201 m (659 ft) and 62 storeys. The second-tallest building in Vancouver is the Trump International Hotel and Tower at 188 m (617 ft), followed by the Private Residences at Hotel Georgia, at 156 m (512 ft). The fourth-tallest is One Wall Centre at 150 m (490 ft) and 48 storeys, followed closely by the Shaw Tower at 149 m (489 ft).
In the 2021 Canadian census conducted by Statistics Canada, Vancouver had a population of 662,248 living in 305,336 of its 328,347 total private dwellings, a change of 4.9% from its 2016 population of 631,486. With a land area of 115.18 km2 (44.47 sq mi), it had a population density of 5,749.7/km2 (14,891.6/sq mi) in 2021.
At the census metropolitan area (CMA) level in the 2021 census, the Vancouver CMA had a population of 2,642,825 living in 1,043,319 of its 1,104,532 total private dwellings, a change of 7.3% from its 2016 population of 2,463,431. With a land area of 2,878.93 km2 (1,111.56 sq mi), it had a population density of 918.0/km2 (2,377.6/sq mi) in 2021.
The 2016 census recorded more than 631,000 people in the city, making it the eighth-largest among Canadian cities. More specifically, Vancouver is the fourth-largest in Western Canada after Calgary, Edmonton and Winnipeg. The metropolitan area referred to as Greater Vancouver, with more than 2.4 million residents, is the third-most populous metropolitan area in the country and the most populous in Western Canada. The larger Lower Mainland-Southwest economic region (which includes also the Squamish-Lillooet, Fraser Valley, and Sunshine Coast Regional District) has a population of over 2.93 million. With 5,249 people per square km (13,590 per sq mi), the City of Vancouver is the most densely populated of Canadian municipalities having more than 5,000 residents. Approximately 74 percent of the people living in Metro Vancouver live outside the city.
Vancouver has been called a "city of neighbourhoods". Each neighbourhood in Vancouver has a distinct character and ethnic mix. People of English, Scottish, and Irish origins were historically the largest ethnic groups in the city, and elements of British society and culture are still visible in some areas, particularly South Granville and Kerrisdale. Germans are the next-largest European ethnic group in Vancouver and were a leading force in the city's society and economy until the rise of anti-German sentiment with the outbreak of World War I in 1914. Today the Chinese are the largest visible ethnic group in the city, with a diverse Chinese-speaking community, and several dialects, including Cantonese and Mandarin. Neighbourhoods with distinct ethnic commercial areas include Chinatown, Punjabi Market, Little Italy, Greektown, and (formerly) Japantown.
Since the 1980s, immigration increased substantially, making the city more ethnically and linguistically diverse; 53 percent of Vancouver's residents do not speak English as their first language. Almost 30 percent of the city's inhabitants are of Chinese heritage. In the 1980s, an influx of immigrants from Hong Kong in anticipation of the transfer of sovereignty from the United Kingdom to China, combined with an increase in immigrants from mainland China and previous immigrants from Taiwan, established in Vancouver one of the highest concentrations of ethnic Chinese residents in North America. This arrival of Asian immigrants continued a tradition of immigration from around the world that had established Vancouver as the second-most popular destination for immigrants in Canada after Toronto. Other significant Asian ethnic groups in Vancouver include South Asians (6.0%), Filipinos (5.9%), Japanese (1.7%), Korean (1.5%), West Asians (1.4%), as well as sizeable communities of Vietnamese, Indonesians, and Cambodians. Despite increases in Latin American immigration to Vancouver in the 1980s and 1990s, recent immigration has been comparatively low, and African immigration has been similarly stagnant (3.6% and 3.3% of total immigrant population, respectively). The black population of Vancouver is small in comparison to other Canadian major cities, making up 0.9 percent of the city. Hogan's Alley, a small area adjacent to Chinatown, just off Main Street at Prior, was once home to a significant black community. The neighbourhood of Strathcona was the core of the city's Jewish community. In 1981, less than 7 percent of the population belonged to a visible minority group. By 2016, this proportion had grown to 52 percent.
Prior to the Hong Kong diaspora of the 1990s, the largest non-British ethnic groups in the city were Irish and German, followed by Scandinavian, Italian, Ukrainian and Chinese. From the mid-1950s until the 1980s, many Portuguese immigrants came to Vancouver and the city had the third-largest Portuguese population in Canada in 2001. Eastern Europeans, including Russians, Czechs, Poles, Romanians and Hungarians began immigrating after the Soviet takeover of Eastern Europe after World War II. Greek immigration increased in the late 1960s and early '70s, with most settling in the Kitsilano area. Vancouver also has a significant aboriginal community of about 11,000 people.
Vancouver has a large LGBT community, with a recognized gay enclave focused in the West End neighbourhood of the downtown core, particularly along Davie Street, officially designated as Davie Village, though the gay community is omnipresent throughout West End and Yaletown areas. Vancouver is host to one of the country's largest annual pride parades.
|Canada 2016 Census||Population||% of Total Population|
|Visible minority group
|Other visible minority||1,500||0.2%|
|Mixed visible minority||11,070||1.8%|
|Total visible minority population||319,010||51.6%|
|Total Aboriginal population||13,440||2.2%|
Homelessness is a significant and persistent issue in Vancouver. A 2019 count found that at least 2,223 people in the city were experiencing homelessness, the highest number recorded since counts began in 2005. Of those surveyed, 28 percent reported having no physical shelter. Indigenous people accounted for 39 percent of all respondents. Three-fifths of respondents reported at least two health concerns, and 67 percent reported an addiction to at least one substance.
With its location on the Pacific Rim and at the western terminus of Canada's transcontinental highway and rail routes, Vancouver is one of the nation's largest industrial centres. Port Metro Vancouver, Canada's largest and most diversified port, does more than $172 billion in trade with over 160 different trading economies annually. Port activities generate $9.7 billion in gross domestic product and $20.3 billion in economic output. Vancouver is also the headquarters of forest product and mining companies. In recent years, Vancouver has become a centre for software development, biotechnology, aerospace, video game development, animation studios and television production and film industry. Vancouver hosts approximately 65 movies and 55 TV series annually and is the 3rd largest film & TV production centre in North America, supporting 20,000 jobs. The city's strong focus on lifestyle and health culture also makes it a hub for many lifestyle brands with Lululemon, Arc'teryx, Kit and Ace, Mountain Equipment Co-op, Herschel Supply Co., Aritzia, Reigning Champ, and Nature's Path Foods all founded and headquartered in Vancouver. Vancouver was also the birthplace of 1-800-GOT-JUNK? and Western Canada's largest online-only publication, Daily Hive.
Vancouver's scenic location makes it a major tourist destination. Over 10.3 million people visited Vancouver in 2017. Annually, tourism contributes approximately $4.8 billion to the Metro Vancouver economy and supports over 70,000 jobs. Many visit to see the city's gardens, Stanley Park, Queen Elizabeth Park, VanDusen Botanical Garden and the mountains, ocean, forest and parklands which surround the city. Each year over a million people pass through Vancouver on cruise ship vacations, often bound for Alaska.
Vancouver is the most stressed city in the spectrum of affordability of housing in Canada. In 2012, Vancouver was ranked by Demographia as the second-most unaffordable city in the world, rated as even more severely unaffordable in 2012 than in 2011. The city has adopted various strategies to reduce housing costs, including cooperative housing, legalized secondary suites, increased density and smart growth. As of April 2010, the average two-level home in Vancouver sold for a record high of $987,500, compared with the Canadian average of $365,141. A factor explaining the high property prices may be policies by the Canadian government which permit snow washing, which allows foreigners to buy property in Canada while shielding their identities from tax authorities, making real estate transactions an effective way to conduct money laundering.
Since the 1990s, development of high-rise condominia in the downtown peninsula has been financed, in part, by an inflow of capital from Hong Kong immigrants due to the former colony's 1997 handover to China. Such development has clustered in the Yaletown and Coal Harbour districts and around many of the SkyTrain stations to the east of the downtown. The city's selection to co-host the 2010 Winter Olympics was also a major influence on economic development. Concern was expressed that Vancouver's increasing homelessness problem would be exacerbated by the Olympics because owners of single room occupancy hotels, which house many of the city's lowest income residents, converted their properties to attract higher income residents and tourists. Another significant international event held in Vancouver, the 1986 World Exposition, received over 20 million visitors and added $3.7 billion to the Canadian economy. Some still-standing Vancouver landmarks, including the SkyTrain public transit system and Canada Place, were built as part of the exposition.
Vancouver, unlike other British Columbia municipalities, is incorporated under the Vancouver Charter. The legislation, passed in 1953, supersedes the Vancouver Incorporation Act, 1921 and grants the city more and different powers than other communities possess under BC's Municipalities Act.
The civic government was dominated by the centre-right Non-Partisan Association (NPA) since World War II, albeit with some significant centre-left interludes until 2008. The NPA fractured over the issue of drug policy in 2002, facilitating a landslide victory for the Coalition of Progressive Electors (COPE) on a harm reduction platform. Subsequently, North America's only legal safe injection site was opened for the significant number of intravenous heroin users in the city.
Vancouver is governed by the eleven-member Vancouver City Council, a nine-member School Board, and a seven-member Park Board, all of whom serve four-year terms. Unusually for a city of Vancouver's size, all municipal elections are on an at-large basis. Historically, in all levels of government, the more affluent west side of Vancouver has voted along conservative or liberal lines while the eastern side of the city has voted along left-wing lines. This was reaffirmed with the results of the 2005 provincial election and the 2006 federal election.
Though polarized, a political consensus has emerged in Vancouver around a number of issues. Protection of urban parks, a focus on the development of rapid transit as opposed to a freeway system, a harm-reduction approach to illegal drug use, and a general concern about community-based development are examples of policies that have come to have broad support across the political spectrum in Vancouver.
In the 2008 Municipal Election campaign, NPA incumbent mayor Sam Sullivan was ousted as mayoral candidate by the party in a close vote, which instated Peter Ladner as the new mayoral candidate for the NPA. Gregor Robertson, a former MLA for Vancouver-Fairview and head of Happy Planet, was the mayoral candidate for Vision Vancouver, the other main contender. Vision Vancouver candidate Gregor Robertson defeated Ladner by a considerable margin, nearing 20,000 votes. The balance of power was significantly shifted to Vision Vancouver, which held seven of the 10 spots for councillor. Of the remaining three, COPE received two and the NPA one. For park commissioner, four spots went to Vision Vancouver, one to the Green Party, one to COPE, and one to NPA. For school trustee, there were four Vision Vancouver seats, three COPE seats, and two NPA seats. In the 2018 Vancouver municipal election, independent Kennedy Stewart was elected mayor of Vancouver.
Vancouver's budget consists of a capital and an operating component. The 2017 operating budget was $1.323 billion, while the 2018 operating budget is $1.407 billion (a year over year increase of 6.4%). The capital budget for 2018 is unchanged from 2017 and stands at $426.4 million. Budget increases are largely funded through increases in property taxes and community amenity contributions imposed in exchange for increases in allowable density as part of the construction permitting process. Utility fees and other user fees have also been increased, but represent a comparatively small portion of Vancouver's overall budget.
Vancouver is a member municipality of Metro Vancouver, a regional government. In total there are 22 municipalities, one electoral area and one treaty First Nation comprising Metro Vancouver, the regional government whose seat is in Burnaby. While each member of Metro Vancouver has its own separate local governing body, Metro Vancouver oversees common services and planning functions within the area such as providing drinking water; operating sewage and solid waste handling; maintaining regional parks; overseeing air quality, greenhouse gases and ecological health; and providing a strategy for regional growth and land use.
Provincial and federal representation
In the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia, Vancouver is represented by 11 members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs). As of April 2022, there are two seats held by the BC Liberal Party, nine by the BC New Democratic Party, and one seat, Vancouver-Quilchena, that is vacant. A by-election is being held on April 30, 2022, to fill this seat.
In the House of Commons of Canada, Vancouver is represented by six members of Parliament. In the 2021 federal election, the Liberals retained three seats (Vancouver Quadra, Vancouver Centre, and Vancouver South) and gained one (Vancouver Granville), while the NDP held on to the two seats (Vancouver East and Vancouver Kingsway) they held at dissolution. The Conservatives were shut out of the city's ridings. Two current Cabinet ministers hail from the city – Vancouver South MP Harjit Sajjan is Minister of International Development, and Vancouver Quadra MP Joyce Murray is Minister of Fisheries, Oceans, and the Canadian Coast Guard.
Policing and crime
Vancouver operates the Vancouver Police Department, with 1,327 sworn members and an operating budget of $316.5 million in 2018. Over 19 percent of the city's budget was spent on police protection in 2018.
The Vancouver Police Department's operational divisions include a bicycle squad, a marine squad, and a dog squad. It also has a mounted squad, used primarily to patrol Stanley Park, as well as for crowd control. The police work in conjunction with civilian and volunteer-run Community Police Centres. In 2006, the police department established its own counterterrorism unit. In 2005, a new transit police force, the Greater Vancouver Transportation Authority Police Service (now the Metro Vancouver Transit Police), was established with full police powers.
Before the legalization of marijuana, Vancouver police generally did not arrest people for possessing small amounts of marijuana. In 2000 the Vancouver Police Department established a specialized drug squad, "Growbusters", to carry out an aggressive campaign against the city's estimated 4,000 hydroponic marijuana growing operations (or grow-ops) in residential areas. As with other law enforcement campaigns targeting marijuana this initiative has been sharply criticized.
As of 2018[update], Vancouver had the ninth-highest crime rate, dropping 5 spots since 2005, among Canada's 35 census metropolitan areas. However, as with other Canadian cities, the overall crime rate has been falling "dramatically". The rate of firearm related violence dropped from 45.3 per 100,000 in 2006, the highest of any major metropolitan region in Canada at that time, to 16.2 in 2017. A series of gang-related incidents in early 2009 escalated into what police have dubbed a gang war. Vancouver plays host to special events such as the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation conference, the Clinton-Yeltsin Summit, or the Symphony of Fire fireworks show that require significant policing. The 1994 Stanley Cup riot overwhelmed police and injured as many as 200 people. A second riot took place following the 2011 Stanley Cup Finals.
To reduce the public health risk from discarded hypodermic needles which are commonly found on the streets of downtown and the adjacent Downtown Eastside, the city runs a continuous collection effort, recovering approximately 1000 needles per day from public spaces. According to Vancouver Coastal Health, the regional health authority and a distributor of clean needles to intravenous drug users, there has never been a documented case of disease transmission from an accidental needlestick.
Jericho Beach in Vancouver is the location of the headquarters of 39 Canadian Brigade Group of the Canadian Army. Local primary reserve units include The Seaforth Highlanders of Canada and The British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own), based at the Seaforth Armoury and the Beatty Street Drill Hall, respectively, and the 15th Field Regiment, Royal Canadian Artillery. The Naval Reserve Unit HMCS Discovery is based on Deadman's Island in Stanley Park. RCAF Station Jericho Beach, the first air base in Western Canada, was taken over by the Canadian Army in 1947 when sea planes were replaced by long-range aircraft. Most of the base facilities were transferred to the City of Vancouver in 1969 and the area renamed "Jericho Park".
The Vancouver School Board enrolls more than 110,000 students in its elementary, secondary, and post-secondary institutions, making it the second-largest school district in the province. The district administers about 76 elementary schools, 17 elementary annexes, 18 secondary schools, 7 adult education centres, 2 Vancouver Learning Network schools, which include 18 French immersion schools, a Mandarin bilingual school, and fine arts (Byng Arts Mini School), gifted, and Montessori schools. The Conseil scolaire francophone de la Colombie-Britannique operates three Francophone schools in that city: the primary schools école Rose-des-vents and école Anne-Hébert as well as the école secondaire Jules-Verne. More than 46 independent schools of a wide variety are also eligible for partial provincial funding and educate approximately 10 percent of pupils in the city.
There are five public universities in the Greater Vancouver area, the largest and most prestigious being the University of British Columbia (UBC) and Simon Fraser University (SFU), with a combined enrolment of more than 90,000 undergraduates, graduates, and professional students in 2008. UBC often ranks among the top 50 best universities in the world and is ranked among the 20 best public universities in Canada. SFU consistently ranks as the top comprehensive university in Canada and is among the 300 best universities in the world. UBC's main campus is located on the tip of Burrard Peninsula, just west of the University Endowment Lands with the city-proper adjacent to the east. SFU's main campus is in Burnaby. Both also maintain campuses in Downtown Vancouver and Surrey.
The other public universities in the metropolitan area around Vancouver are Capilano University in North Vancouver, Emily Carr University of Art and Design, and Kwantlen Polytechnic University whose four campuses are all outside the city proper. Six private institutions also operate in the region: Trinity Western University in Langley, UOPX Canada in Burnaby, and University Canada West, NYIT Canada, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Columbia College, and Sprott Shaw College, all in Vancouver.
Vancouver Community College and Langara College are publicly funded college-level institutions in Vancouver, as is Douglas College with three campuses outside the city. The British Columbia Institute of Technology in Burnaby provides polytechnic education. These are augmented by private and vocational institutions and other colleges in the surrounding areas of Metro Vancouver that provide career, trade, technical, and university-transfer programs, while the Vancouver Film School provides one-year programs in film production and video game design.
International students and English as a second language (ESL) students have been significant in the enrolment of these public and private institutions. For the 2008–2009 school year, 53 percent of Vancouver School Board's students spoke a language other than English at home.
Arts and culture
Theatre, dance, film and television
Prominent theatre companies in Vancouver include the Arts Club Theatre Company on Granville Island, and Bard on the Beach. Smaller companies include Touchstone Theatre, and Studio 58. The Cultch, The Firehall Arts Centre, United Players, Pacific and Metro Theatres, all run continuous theatre seasons. Theatre Under the Stars produces shows in the summer at Malkin Bowl in Stanley Park. Annual festivals that are held in Vancouver include the PuSh International Performing Arts Festival in January and the Vancouver Fringe Festival in September.
The Vancouver Playhouse Theatre Company operated for fifty years, ending in March 2012.
The Scotiabank Dance Centre, a converted bank building on the corner of Davie and Granville, functions as a gathering place and performance venue for Vancouver-based dancers and choreographers. Dances for a Small Stage is a semi-annual dance festival.
The Vancouver International Film Festival, which runs for two weeks each September, shows over 350 films and is one of the larger film festivals in North America. The VIFF Centre venue, the Vancity Theatre, runs independent non-commercial films throughout the rest of the year, as do the Pacific Cinémathèque, and the Rio theatres.
Films set in Vancouver
Vancouver has become a major film location, known as Hollywood North, as it has stood in for several U.S. cities. However, it has started to appear as itself in several feature films. Among films set in the city and its surroundings are the 1994 US thriller Intersection, starring Richard Gere and Sharon Stone; the 2007 Canadian ghost thriller They Wait, starring Terry Chen and Jaime King; and the acclaimed Canadian 'mockumentary' Hard Core Logo, and was named the second-best Canadian film of the last 15 years, in a 2001 poll of 200 industry voters, performed by Playback. Genie Award-winning filmmaker Mina Shum has filmed and set several of her internationally released features in Vancouver, including the Sundance-screened Long Life, Happiness & Prosperity (2002).
Television shows produced in Vancouver
Many past and current TV shows have been filmed and set in Vancouver. The first Canadian prime time national series to be produced out of Vancouver was Cold Squad and its storyline was also physically set in the city. Other series set in or around the city of Vancouver include Continuum, Da Vinci's Inquest, Danger Bay, Edgemont, Godiva's, Intelligence, Motive, Northwood, Primeval: New World, Robson Arms, The Romeo Section, Shattered, The Switch, and These Arms of Mine.
Television shows produced (but not set) in Vancouver (that have been produced by American and Canadian studios alike) include 21 Jump Street, The 100, The 4400, Airwolf, Almost Human, Arrow, Backstrom, Caprica, Cedar Cove, Chesapeake Shores, The Commish, Dark Angel, Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency, The Flash, The Good Doctor, Haters Back Off, Hellcats, Intelligence, iZombie, The Killing, The L Word, Life Unexpected, The Man in the High Castle, Once Upon a Time, Psych, Reaper, Riverdale, Rogue, Smallville, Stargate SG-1, Supergirl, Supernatural, The Tomorrow People, The Magicians, Tru Calling, Van Helsing, Witches of East End, and The X-Files.
Libraries and museums
Libraries in Vancouver include the Vancouver Public Library with its main branch at Library Square, designed by Moshe Safdie. The central branch contains 1.5 million volumes. Altogether there are twenty-two branches containing 2.25 million volumes. The Vancouver Tool Library is Canada's original tool lending library.
The Vancouver Art Gallery has a permanent collection of nearly 10,000 items and is the home of a significant number of works by Emily Carr. However, little or none of the permanent collection is ever on view. Downtown is also home to the Contemporary Art Gallery (Vancouver), which showcases temporary exhibitions by up-and-coming Vancouver artists. The Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gallery with a small collection of contemporary works is part of the University of British Columbia.
In the Kitsilano district are the Vancouver Maritime Museum, the H. R. MacMillan Space Centre, and the Vancouver Museum, the largest civic museum in Canada. The Museum of Anthropology at UBC is a leading museum of Pacific Northwest Coast First Nations culture. A more interactive museum is Science World at the head of False Creek. The city also features a diverse collection of Public Art.
The Vancouver School of conceptual photography (often referred to as photoconceptualism) is a term applied to a grouping of artists from Vancouver who achieved international recognition starting in the 1980s. No formal "school" exists and the grouping remains both informal and often controversial even among the artists themselves, who often resist the term. Artists associated with the term include Jeff Wall, Ian Wallace, Ken Lum, Roy Arden, Stan Douglas and Rodney Graham.
Music and nightlife
Musical contributions from Vancouver include performers of classical, folk and popular music. The Vancouver Symphony Orchestra is the professional orchestra based in the city. The Vancouver Opera is a major opera company in the city, and City Opera of Vancouver is the city's professional chamber opera company. The city is home to a number of Canadian composers including Rodney Sharman, Jeffrey Ryan, and Jocelyn Morlock.
The city produced a number of notable punk rock bands, including D.O.A. Other early Vancouver punk bands included the Subhumans, the Young Canadians, the Pointed Sticks, and U-J3RK5. When alternative rock became popular in the 1990s, several Vancouver groups rose to prominence, including 54-40, Odds, Moist, the Matthew Good Band, Sons of Freedom and Econoline Crush. Recent successful Vancouver bands include Gob, Marianas Trench, Theory of a Deadman and Stabilo. Today, Vancouver is home to a number of popular independent bands such as The New Pornographers, Japandroids, Destroyer, In Medias Res, Tegan and Sara, and independent labels including Nettwerk and Mint. Vancouver also produced influential metal band Strapping Young Lad and pioneering electro-industrial bands Skinny Puppy, Numb and Front Line Assembly; the latter's Bill Leeb is better known for founding ambient pop super-group Delerium. Other popular musical artists who made their mark from Vancouver include Carly Rae Jepsen, Bryan Adams, Sarah McLachlan, Heart, Prism, Trooper, Chilliwack, Payolas, Moev, Images in Vogue, Michael Bublé, Stef Lang and Spirit of the West.
Larger musical performances are usually held at venues such as Rogers Arena, Queen Elizabeth Theatre, BC Place Stadium or the Pacific Coliseum, while smaller acts are held at places such as the Commodore Ballroom, the Orpheum Theatre and the Vogue Theatre. The Vancouver Folk Music Festival and the Vancouver International Jazz Festival showcase music in their respective genres from around the world. Vancouver's Hong Kong Chinese population has produced several Cantopop stars across the Hong Kong entertainment industry. Similarly, various Indo-Canadian artists and actors have a profile in Bollywood or other aspects of India's entertainment industry.
Vancouver has a vibrant nightlife scene, whether it be food and dining, or bars and nightclubs. The Granville Entertainment District has the city's highest concentration of bars and nightclubs with closing times of 3 am, in addition to various after-hours clubs open until late morning on weekends. The street can attract large crowds on weekends and is closed to traffic on such nights. Gastown is also a popular area for nightlife with many upscale restaurants and nightclubs, as well as the Davie Village which is centre to the city's LGBT community.
Vancouver is a centre for film and television production. Nicknamed Hollywood North, a distinction it shares with Toronto, the city has been used as a film making location for nearly a century, beginning with the Edison Manufacturing Company. In 2008 more than 260 productions were filmed in Vancouver.[non-primary source needed] In 2011 Vancouver slipped to fourth place overall at 1.19 billion, although the region still leads Canada in foreign production.
A wide mix of local, national, and international newspapers are distributed in the city. The two major English-language daily newspapers are the Vancouver Sun and The Province. Also, there are two national newspapers distributed in the city, including The Globe and Mail, which began publication of a "national edition" in BC in 1983 and recently expanded to include a three-page BC news section, and the National Post which centres on national news. Other local newspapers include 24H (a local free daily), the Vancouver franchise of the national free daily Metro, the twice-a-week Vancouver Courier, and the independent newspaper The Georgia Straight. Three Chinese-language daily newspapers – Ming Pao, Sing Tao and World Journal – cater to the city's large Cantonese- and Mandarin-speaking population. A number of other local and international papers serve other multicultural groups in the Lower Mainland.
Some of the local television stations include CBC, Citytv, CTV and Global BC. OMNI British Columbia produces daily newscasts in Cantonese, Mandarin, Punjabi and Korean, and weekly newscasts in Tagalog, as well as programs aimed at other cultural groups. Fairchild Group also has two television stations: Fairchild TV and Talentvision, serving Cantonese- and Mandarin-speaking audiences, respectively.
Radio stations with news departments include CBC Radio One, CKNW and News 1130. The Franco-Columbian community is served by Radio-Canada outlets CBUFT-DT channel 26 (Ici Radio-Canada Télé), CBUF-FM 97.7 (Première Chaîne) and CBUX-FM 90.9 (Espace musique). The multilingual South Asian community is served by Spice Radio on 1200 AM established in 2014.
Media dominance is a frequently discussed issue in Vancouver as newspapers the Vancouver Sun, The Province, the Vancouver Courier and other local newspapers such as the Surrey Now, the Burnaby Now and the Richmond News, are all owned by Postmedia Network. The concentration of media ownership has spurred alternatives, making Vancouver a centre for independent online media including The Tyee, The Vancouver Observer, and NowPublic, as well as hyperlocal online media, like Daily Hive and Vancouver Is Awesome, which provide coverage of community events and local arts and culture.
Vancouver's streetcar system began on June 28, 1890, and ran from the (first) Granville Street Bridge to Westminster Avenue (now Main Street and Kingsway). Less than a year later, the Westminster and Vancouver Tramway Company began operating Canada's first interurban line between the two cities (extended to Chilliwack in 1910). Another line (1902), the Vancouver and Lulu Island Railway, was leased by the Canadian Pacific Railway to the British Columbia Electric Railway in 1905 and ran from the Granville Street Bridge to Steveston via Kerrisdale, which encouraged residential neighbourhoods outside the central core to develop. From 1897 the British Columbia Electric Railway (BCER) became the company that operated the urban and interurban rail system, until 1958, when its last vestiges were dismantled in favour of "trackless" trolley and gasoline/diesel buses; in that same year the BCER became the core of the newly created, publicly owned BC Hydro. Vancouver currently has the second-largest trolleybus fleet in North America, after San Francisco.
Successive city councils in the 1970s and 1980s prohibited the construction of freeways as part of a long-term plan. As a result, the only major freeway within city limits is Highway 1, which passes through the north-eastern corner of the city. While the number of cars in Vancouver proper has been steadily rising with population growth, the rate of car ownership and the average distance driven by daily commuters have fallen since the early 1990s. Vancouver is the only major Canadian city with these trends. Despite the fact that the journey time per vehicle has increased by one-third and growing traffic mass, there are 7 percent fewer cars making trips into the downtown core. In 2012, Vancouver had the worst traffic congestion in Canada and the second-highest in North America, behind Los Angeles. As of 2013[update], Vancouver now has the worst traffic congestion in North America. Residents have been more inclined to live in areas closer to their interests, or use more energy-efficient means of travel, such as mass transit and cycling. This is, in part, the result of a push by city planners for a solution to traffic problems and pro-environment campaigns. Transportation demand management policies have imposed restrictions on drivers making it more difficult and expensive to commute while introducing more benefits for non-drivers.
TransLink is responsible for roads and public transportation within Metro Vancouver (in succession to BC Transit, which had taken over the transit functions of BC Hydro). It provides bus service, including the RapidBus express service, a foot passenger and bicycle ferry service (known as SeaBus), an automated rapid transit service called SkyTrain, and West Coast Express commuter rail. Vancouver's SkyTrain system is currently running on three lines, the Millennium Line, the Expo Line and the Canada Line with a total of 53 stations as of 2017. Only 20 of these stations are within the City of Vancouver borders, with the remainders in the adjacent suburbs. A number of city's biggest tourist attractions, such as English Bay, Stanley Park, the Vancouver Aquarium, University of British Columbia with the Museum of Anthropology, and Kitsilano are not connected by this rapid transit system.
Changes are being made to the regional transportation network as part of Translink's 10-Year Transportation Plan. The Canada Line, opened on August 17, 2009, connects Vancouver International Airport and the neighbouring city of Richmond with the existing SkyTrain system. The Evergreen Extension, which opened on December 2, 2016, links the cities of Coquitlam and Port Moody with the SkyTrain system. As of January 2019, plans to extend the SkyTrain Millennium Line west to UBC as a subway under Broadway have been approved and there are plans for capacity upgrades and an extension to the Expo Line. Several road projects will be completed within the next few years, as part of the Provincial Government's Gateway Program.
Other modes of transport add to the diversity of options available in Vancouver. Inter-city passenger rail service is operated from Pacific Central Station by Via Rail to points east, Amtrak Cascades to Seattle and Portland, and Rocky Mountaineer rail tour routes. Small passenger ferries operating in False Creek provide commuter service to Granville Island, Downtown Vancouver and Kitsilano. Vancouver has a citywide network of bicycle lanes and routes, which supports an active population of cyclists year-round. Cycling has become Vancouver's fastest-growing mode of transportation. The bicycle-sharing system Mobi was introduced to the city in June 2016.
Vancouver is served by Vancouver International Airport (YVR), located on Sea Island in the city of Richmond, immediately south of Vancouver. Vancouver's airport is Canada's second-busiest airport, and the second-largest gateway on the west coast of North America for international passengers. HeliJet and float plane companies operate scheduled air service from Vancouver harbour and YVR south terminal. The city is also served by two BC Ferry terminals. One is to the northwest at Horseshoe Bay (in West Vancouver), and the other is to the south, at Tsawwassen (in Delta).
Sports and recreation
The mild climate of the city and proximity to ocean, mountains, rivers and lakes make the area a popular destination for outdoor recreation. Vancouver has over 1,298 ha (3,210 acres) of parks, of which Stanley Park, at 404 ha (1,000 acres), is the largest. The city has several large beaches, many adjacent to one another, extending from the shoreline of Stanley Park around False Creek to the south side of English Bay, from Kitsilano to the University Endowment Lands, (which also has beaches that are not part of the city proper). The 18 km (11 mi) of beaches include Second and Third Beaches in Stanley Park, English Bay (First Beach), Sunset, Kitsilano Beach, Jericho, Locarno, Spanish Banks, Spanish Banks Extension, Spanish Banks West, and Wreck Beach. There is also a freshwater beach at Trout Lake in John Hendry Park. The coastline provides for many types of water sport, and the city is a popular destination for boating enthusiasts.
Within a 20- to 30-minute drive from downtown Vancouver are the North Shore Mountains, with three ski areas: Cypress Mountain, Grouse Mountain, and Mount Seymour. Mountain bikers have created world-renowned trails across the North Shore. The Capilano River, Lynn Creek and Seymour River, also on the North Shore, provide opportunities to whitewater enthusiasts during periods of rain and spring melt, though the canyons of those rivers are more utilized for hiking and swimming than whitewater.
Running races include the Vancouver Sun Run (a 10-kilometre (6.2 mi) race) every April; the Vancouver Marathon, held every May; and the Scotiabank Vancouver Half-Marathon held every June. The Grouse Grind is a 2.9-kilometre (1.8 mi) climb up Grouse Mountain open throughout the summer and fall months, including the annual Grouse Grind Mountain Run. Hiking trails include the Baden-Powell Trail, an arduous 42-kilometre-long (26 mi) hike from West Vancouver's Horseshoe Bay to Deep Cove in the District of North Vancouver.
Vancouver is also home to notable cycling races. During most summers since 1973, the Global Relay Gastown Grand Prix has been held on the cobblestone streets of Gastown. This race and the UBC Grand Prix are part of BC Superweek, an annual series of professional cycling races in Metro Vancouver.
Vancouver, along with Whistler and Richmond, was the host city for the 2010 Winter Olympics and the 2010 Winter Paralympics. On June 12, 2010, it played host to Ultimate Fighting Championship 115 (UFC 115) which was the fourth UFC event to be held in Canada (and the first outside Montreal).
In 2011, Vancouver hosted the Grey Cup, the Canadian Football League (CFL) championship game which is awarded every year to a different city which has a CFL team. The BC Titans of the International Basketball League played their inaugural season in 2009, with home games at the Langley Event Centre. Vancouver is a centre for the fast-growing sport of ultimate. During the summer of 2008 Vancouver hosted the World Ultimate Championships.
The National Basketball Association (NBA) came to town in the form of the Vancouver Grizzlies in 1995. They played their games at Rogers Arena. After six years in Vancouver, the team relocated to Memphis, Tennessee, in 2001.
Vancouver has an adult obesity rate of 12 percent, compared to the Canadian average of 23 percent. 51.8 percent of Vancouverites are overweight, making it the fourth-thinnest city in Canada after Toronto, Montreal, and Halifax.
Current professional teams
|BC Lions||Canadian Football League (CFL)||Football||BC Place||1954||6|
|Vancouver Canucks||National Hockey League (NHL)||Ice hockey||Rogers Arena||1970
|0 (6 in previous leagues)|
|Vancouver Canadians||Northwest League
|Baseball||Nat Bailey Stadium||2000||4|
|Vancouver Giants||Western Hockey League (WHL)||Ice hockey||Langley Events Centre||2001||1|
|Vancouver Whitecaps FC||Major League Soccer (MLS)||Soccer||BC Place||2009
|0 (7 in previous leagues)|
|BC Bears||Canadian Rugby Championship (CRC)||Rugby Union||Thunderbird Stadium||2009||2|
|Vancouver Warriors||National Lacrosse League (NLL)||Box Lacrosse||Rogers Arena||2014||0 (1 as the Washington Stealth)|
|Vancouver Titans||Overwatch League||Overwatch||Blizzard Arena||2018||1 (Stage 1 Champions)|
|Vancouver Knights||Global T20 Canada (GT20)||Cricket||None||2018||1|
The City of Vancouver is a member of Metro Vancouver, which provides sustainable regional services to the Greater Vancouver area. The city electrical grid is serviced by BC Hydro, which has 97.8 percent clean energy generation. The City of Vancouver is the greenest city in Canada according to an independent ongoing urban ecological footprint study.
The Greenest City action plan (GCAP) is a City of Vancouver urban sustainability initiative. Its primary mission was to ensure that Vancouver would become the greenest city in the world by 2020. The GCAP originated based on the 2009 work of the Greenest City Action Team, a committee co-chaired by Vancouver mayor Gregor Robertson. The GCAP was approved by Vancouver city council in July 2011.
In May 2018, the Zero Waste 2040 Strategy was passed by Vancouver's city council. The city began work the same year on decreasing the amount of single-use items distributed in the city and stated its intention to ban these items by 2021 if businesses do not meet reduction targets. As part of the plan, a ban on plastic straws, polystyrene food packaging and free shopping bags was to go into effect in mid-2019.
Twin towns – sister cities
The City of Vancouver was one of the first cities in Canada to enter into an international sister cities arrangement. Special arrangements for cultural, social and economic benefits have been created with these sister cities.
|United States||Los Angeles||1986|
- East Vancouver
- Gentrification of Vancouver
- Leaky condo crisis
- History of Squamish and Tsleil-Waututh longshoremen, 1863–1963
- "Vancouver". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
- "Census Profile, 2016 Census - Vancouver [Population centre], British Columbia and British Columbia". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Statistics Canada - Government of Canada. February 8, 2017. Archived from the original on May 23, 2020. Retrieved August 19, 2019.
- "Population size and growth in Canada: Key results from the 2016 Census". Statistics Canada. May 10, 2016. Archived from the original on February 10, 2017. Retrieved February 8, 2016.
- "Census Profile, 2016 Census – Vancouver, City Census subdivision, British Columbia Province". Archived from the original on November 3, 2018. Retrieved September 1, 2018.
- "Data table, Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population - Vancouver, City (CY) [Census subdivision], British Columbia". Archived from the original on February 10, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
- "Table 36-10-0468-01 Gross domestic product (GDP) at basic prices, by census metropolitan area (CMA) (x 1,000,000)". Statistics Canada. January 27, 2017. Archived from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2021.
- "Population of Metro Vancouver outpaced national growth rate". Vancouver Sun. Vancouver. February 8, 2017. Archived from the original on February 8, 2017. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
- Campion-Smith, Bruce (February 8, 2017). "Canada's population grew 1.7M in 5 years, latest census shows". Toronto Star. Toronto. Archived from the original on February 8, 2017. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
- "Census 2006 Community Profiles: Vancouver, City and CMA". Government of Canada. 2006. Archived from the original on November 4, 2011. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- "City Facts 2004" (PDF). City of Vancouver. 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 12, 2006. Retrieved June 9, 2011.
- "Census Profile, 2016 Census". StatCan. Archived from the original on March 17, 2017. Retrieved January 4, 2020.
- Staff, DH Vancouver (March 20, 2018). "Vancouver ranked best city in North America for quality of living". Daily Hive. Archived from the original on February 19, 2019. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
- "Vancouver and Melbourne top city league". BBC News. October 4, 2002. Archived from the original on July 12, 2015. Retrieved June 9, 2011.
- Taylor, Chloe (March 13, 2019). "These are the world's top cities to live in, according to researchers". CNBC. Archived from the original on May 9, 2019. Retrieved December 23, 2019.
- "Vancouver yet again most expensive place to live in Canada". CTV News. June 26, 2019. Archived from the original on October 19, 2021. Retrieved August 23, 2021.
- Morley, A. (1974). Vancouver, from milltown to metropolis. Vancouver: Mitchell Press. LCCN 64026114.
- Norris, John M. (1971). Strangers Entertained. Vancouver, British Columbia Centennial '71 Committee. LCCN 72170963.
- "FIFA Women's World Cup Canada 2015™ match schedule unveiled". FIFA. Archived from the original on April 26, 2013. Retrieved April 30, 2013.
- "Vancouver 2010 Schedule". olympic.org. International Olympic Committee. 2010. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved June 9, 2011.
- "World Port Rankings 2016". American Association of Port Authorities. Archived from the original on April 29, 2018. Retrieved August 1, 2019.
- "Port Metro Vancouver Mid-Year Stats Include Bright Spots in a Difficult First Half for 2009". Port Metro Vancouver. July 31, 2009. Archived from the original on June 15, 2011. Retrieved June 9, 2011.
- "Cargo and terminals". Port of Vancouver. March 18, 2015. Retrieved March 3, 2022.
- "Overnight visitors to Greater Vancouver by volume, monthly and annual basis" (PDF). Vancouver Convention and Visitors Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 17, 2011. Retrieved June 9, 2011.
- "Industry Profile". BC Film Commission. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved June 9, 2011.
- "Ontario film industry outperforming B.C.'s". Business In Vancouver. Archived from the original on August 12, 2012. Retrieved August 12, 2012.
- Gasher, Mike (November 2002). Hollywood North: The Feature Film Industry in British Columbia. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. ISBN 978-0-7748-0967-2.
- Shrimpton, James (August 17, 2007). "Vancouver: Welcome to Brollywood". News Limited. Archived from the original on October 20, 2017. Retrieved March 16, 2013.
- "Canada's Hollywood Gets a Boost with New Studio". Miami Herald. August 9, 1988. Archived from the original on May 11, 2013. Retrieved March 16, 2013.
- "Dictionary of Canadian Biography: George Vancouver". biography.ca. Archived from the original on February 3, 2018.
- Davis, Chuck; W. Kaye Lamb (1997). Greater Vancouver Book: An Urban Encyclopaedia. Surrey, BC: Linkman Press. pp. 34–36. ISBN 978-1-896846-00-2.
- Davis, Chuck. "Coevorden". The History of Metropolitan Vancouver. Archived from the original on June 10, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- Sterritt, Angela (June 24, 2021). "Road signs along the Sea to Sky Highway offer insight into the history of the Sḵwx̱wú7mesh people". CBC News. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on July 25, 2021. Retrieved July 25, 2021.
- Thom, Brian (1996). "Stó:lo Culture – Ideas of Prehistory and Changing Cultural Relationships to the Land and Environment". Archived from the original on July 18, 2007. Retrieved November 23, 2006.
- Carlson, Keith Thor, ed. (2001). A Stó:lō-Coast Salish Historical Atlas. Vancouver, BC: Douglas & McIntyre. pp. 6–18. ISBN 978-1-55054-812-9.
- Roy, Patricia E. (March 12, 2019). "Vancouver". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Archived from the original on July 20, 2021. Retrieved July 2, 2021.
- Barman, J. (2005). Stanley Park's Secret. Harbour Publishing. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-55017-346-8.
- Schultz, Colin. "One of Canada's Biggest Cities Just Officially Admitted That It Was Built on Unceded Aboriginal Territory". Smithsonian Magazine. Archived from the original on July 9, 2021. Retrieved July 1, 2021.
- "Stolo Dictionary". University of the Fraser Valley. Archived from the original on July 3, 2020. Retrieved January 10, 2020.
- Galloway, Brent Douglas (2009). Dictionary of Upriver Halkomelem. University of California Press. p. 291. ISBN 978-0-520-09872-5. Archived from the original on October 19, 2021. Retrieved July 3, 2020.
- Bawlf, R. Samuel (2003). The Secret Voyage of Sir Francis Drake: 1577–1580. Walker & Company. ISBN 978-0-8027-1405-3.
- "History of City of Vancouver". Caroun.com. Archived from the original on March 29, 2007. Retrieved January 17, 2007.
- Hull, Raymond; Soules, Christine; Soules, Gordon (1974). Vancouver's Past. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0-295-95364-9.
- Hauka, Donald J. (2003). McGowan's War. New Star Books. ISBN 1-55420-001-6.
- Matthews, J.S. "Skit" (1936). Early Vancouver. City of Vancouver.
- Cranny, Michael; Jarvis, Graham; Moles, Garvin; Seney, Bruce (1999). Horizons: Canada Moves West. Scarborough, ON: Prentice Hall Ginn Canada. ISBN 978-0-13-012367-1.
- Davis, Chuck (1997). The Greater Vancouver Book: An Urban Encyclopaedia. Surrey, British Columbia: Linkman Press. pp. 39–47. ISBN 1-896846-00-9.
- "Welcome to Gastown". Gastown Business Improvement Society. March 28, 2008. Archived from the original on November 25, 2009. Retrieved December 5, 2009.
- "Chronology[1757–1884]". Archived from the original on June 10, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- Morton, James (1973). In the Sea of Sterile Mountains: The Chinese in British Columbia. Vancouver: J.J. Douglas. ISBN 978-0-88894-052-0.
- Davis, Chuck; von Kleist, Richard (1997). Greater Vancouver Book: An Urban Encyclopaedia. Surrey, BC: Linkman Press. p. 780. ISBN 978-1-896846-00-2.
- "Our History: Acquisitions, Retail, Woodward's Stores Limited". Hudson's Bay Company. Archived from the original on February 27, 2007. Retrieved June 9, 2011.
- "British Columbia facts – economic history". Archived from the original on September 11, 2011. Retrieved June 12, 2011.
- "BC Sugar". The History of Metropolitan Vancouver. Archived from the original on January 4, 2015. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
The dream had become reality: B.C. Sugar was incorporated March 26, 1890. Its president, Benjamin Tingley Rogers, was 24.
- McCandless, R. C. (1974). "Vancouver's 'Red Menace' of 1935: The Waterfront Situation". BC Studies (22): 68.
- Phillips, Paul A. (1967). No Power Greater: A Century of Labour in British Columbia. Vancouver: BC Federation of Labour/Boag Foundation. pp. 39–41.
- Phillips, Paul A. (1967). No Power Greater: A Century of Labour in British Columbia. Vancouver: BC Federation of Labour/Boag Foundation. pp. 71–74.
- Manley, John (1994). "Canadian Communists, Revolutionary Unionism, and the 'Third Period': The Workers' Unity League" (PDF). Journal of the Canadian Historical Association. New Series. 5: 167–194. doi:10.7202/031078ar. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 14, 2007. Retrieved November 12, 2006.
- Brown, Lorne (1987). When Freedom was Lost: The Unemployed, the Agitator, and the State. Montreal: Black Rose Books. ISBN 978-0-920057-77-3.
- Schroeder, Andreas (1991). Carved From Wood: A History of Mission 1861–1992. Mission Foundation. ISBN 978-1-55056-131-9.
- Robin, Martin (1972). The Rush for Spoils: The Company Province. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-7710-7675-6.
- Robin, Martin (1972). The Rush for Spoils: The Company Province. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart. pp. 187–188. ISBN 978-0-7710-7675-6.
- Carstairs, Catherine (2000). 'Hop Heads' and 'Hypes':Drug Use, Regulation and Resistance in Canada (PDF) (PhD). University of Toronto. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 1, 2007. Retrieved June 9, 2011.
- Roy, Patricia E. (1990). Mutual Hostages: Canadians and Japanese during the Second World War. Toronto, Ontario: University of Toronto Press. p. 103. ISBN 0-8020-5774-8.
- La Violette, Forrest E. (1948). The Canadian Japanese and World War II. Toronto, Ontario: University of Toronto Press. p. v.
- Francis, Daniel (2004). L.D.:Mayor Louis Taylor and the Rise of Vancouver. Vancouver: Arsenal Pulp Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-1-55152-156-5.
- "Pacific Maritime Ecozone". Environment Canada. April 11, 2005. Archived from the original on June 21, 2004. Retrieved December 1, 2009.
- "Vancouver Is Not On Vancouver Island". Archived from the original on November 5, 2011.
- "Vancouver Island – "Victoria Island" and other Misconceptions". Archived from the original on September 5, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- "World66 – Vancouver Travel Guide". World 66. Archived from the original on May 13, 2006. Retrieved October 18, 2006.
- "About Vancouver". City of Vancouver. November 17, 2009. Archived from the original on December 1, 2010. Retrieved December 1, 2009.
- "Stanley Park History". City of Vancouver. 2009. Archived from the original on August 23, 2011. Retrieved December 1, 2009.
- ""Lower Mainland Ecoregion": Narrative Descriptions of Terrestrial Ecozones and Ecoregions of Canada (#196)". Environment Canada. Archived from the original on January 27, 2007. Retrieved December 4, 2009.
- "Stanley Park: Forest – Monument Trees". City of Vancouver. 2009. Archived from the original on December 1, 2010. Retrieved December 1, 2009.
- "History". Vancouver Cherry Blossom Festival. 2009. Archived from the original on May 3, 2009. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- "Station Results: Vancouver City Hall, 1971–2000". Environment Canada. Archived from the original on June 9, 2012. Retrieved November 21, 2011.
- "Station Results | Canada's National Climate Archive". climate.weatheroffice.gc.ca. Environment Canada. February 4, 2013. Archived from the original on May 11, 2013. Retrieved February 27, 2013.
- "Station Results | Canada's National Climate Archive". climate.weatheroffice.gc.ca. Environment Canada. February 4, 2013. Archived from the original on May 12, 2013. Retrieved February 27, 2013.
- "Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010 Station Data". Environment Canada. October 31, 2011. Archived from the original on February 26, 2015. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
- "Temperature record broken in Lower Mainland – again". CBC News. July 30, 2009. Archived from the original on March 27, 2010. Retrieved June 9, 2011.
- "Weather Data – Vancouver Kitsilano". Environment Canada. Archived from the original on October 9, 2016. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
- "Weather Data – Vancouver Dunbar South". Environment Canada. Archived from the original on October 9, 2016. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
- "Weather Data – Vancouver Wales St". Environment Canada. Archived from the original on October 9, 2016. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
- "Weather Data – VANCOUVER INT'L A". Environment Canada. Archived from the original on March 18, 2018. Retrieved March 17, 2018.
- "Weather Data – VANCOUVER INT'L A". Environment Canada. October 31, 2011. Archived from the original on March 18, 2018. Retrieved March 17, 2018.
- "Weather Winners – Mildest Winters". Environment Canada. Archived from the original on November 25, 2011. Retrieved June 9, 2011.
- "Plant Hardiness Zones 1981–2010". Natural Resources Canada. Archived from the original on April 16, 2015. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
- "Daily Data Report for October 1898". Environment and Climate Change Canada. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
- "Monthly Data Report for 1937". Environment and Climate Change Canada. Retrieved May 12, 2016.
- "1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals". Environment and Climate Change Canada. September 22, 2015. Climate ID: 1108447. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
- "Daily Data Report for March 1941". Canadian Climate Data. Environment and Climate Change Canada. Retrieved May 12, 2016.
- "Daily Data Report for April 1934". Canadian Climate Data. Environment and Climate Change Canada. Retrieved May 12, 2016.
- "Daily Data Report for September 1944". Canadian Climate Data. Environment and Climate Change Canada. Retrieved May 12, 2016.
- "Daily Data Report for October 1934". Canadian Climate Data. Environment and Climate Change Canada. Retrieved May 12, 2016.
- "Daily Data Report for December 1939". Canadian Climate Data. Environment and Climate Change Canada. Retrieved May 12, 2016.
- "Daily Data Report for August 1910". Canadian Climate Data. Environment and Climate Change Canada. Retrieved May 12, 2016.
- "Daily Data Report for September 1908". Canadian Climate Data. Environment and Climate Change Canada. Retrieved May 12, 2016.
- "Daily Data Report for October 1935". Canadian Climate Data. Environment and Climate Change Canada. Retrieved May 12, 2016.
- "Calculation Information" (PDF). Environment and Climate Change Canada. Retrieved May 12, 2016.
- "Daily Data Report for November 2016". Canadian Climate Data. Environment and Climate Change Canada. Retrieved November 9, 2016.
- "Daily Data Report for November 1898". Canadian Climate Data. Environment and Climate Change Canada. Retrieved March 6, 2021.
- "Daily Data Report for June 1925". Environment and Climate Change Canada. Retrieved December 14, 2021.
- d.o.o, Yu Media Group. "Vancouver, Canada - Detailed climate information and monthly weather forecast". Weather Atlas. Retrieved July 6, 2019.
- "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada and census subdivisions (municipalities) with 5,000-plus population, 2011 and 2006 censuses". Archived from the original on July 22, 2012. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Bogdanowicz, Julie (August 2006). "Vancouverism". Canadian Architect. Retrieved June 9, 2011.[permanent dead link]
- Smith, Ainsley (April 16, 2019). "Vancouver ranked 4th most-expensive housing market in the world". The Daily Hive. Archived from the original on December 23, 2019. Retrieved December 23, 2019.
- "Metro Vancouver home buyers set a record pace in February". Archived from the original on March 11, 2016. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- vom Hove, Tann (June 17, 2008). "City Mayors: World's most expensive cities (EIU)". City Mayors Economics. Archived from the original on March 16, 2010. Retrieved March 30, 2010.
- Beauchesne, Eric (June 24, 2006). "Toronto pegged as priciest place to live in Canada". The Vancouver Sun. Archived from the original on December 27, 2009. Retrieved November 29, 2009.
- Malone, Robert (April 16, 2007). "Which Are The World's Cleanest Cities?". Forbes. Archived from the original on November 30, 2009. Retrieved December 5, 2009.
- Bula, Frances (September 6, 2007). "Some things worked: The best – or worst – planning decisions made in the Lower Mainland". Vancouver Sun. Archived from the original on June 4, 2011. Retrieved December 4, 2009.
- Hutton, T. (2008). The New Economy of the Inner City. London & New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-77134-4. Google Books link Archived May 1, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
- "Vancouver EcoDensity Initiative". City of Vancouver. Archived from the original on May 13, 2009. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- Davis, Chuck. "Rattenbury". The History of Metropolitan Vancouver. Archived from the original on January 3, 2007. Retrieved November 23, 2006.
- The Electra, at vancouver.ca Archived January 23, 2005, at the Wayback Machine
- "Townley, Matheson and Partners". Archives Association of British Columbia. 2009. Archived from the original on July 28, 2011. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- Kalman, Harold (1974). Exploring Vancouver: Ten Tours of the City and its Buildings. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. pp. 160–161. ISBN 978-0-7748-0028-0.
- Kalman, Harold (1974). Exploring Vancouver: Ten Tours of the City and its Buildings. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. pp. 22, 24, 78. ISBN 978-0-7748-0028-0.
- "Marine Building". Archiseek. Archived from the original on April 29, 2011. Retrieved November 23, 2006.
- "Living Shangri-La". Emporis Buildings. Archived from the original on December 24, 2010. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- "Vancouver High-rise buildings (in ft)". Emporis Buildings. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved February 6, 2007.
- "Data table, Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population - Vancouver, City (CY) [Census subdivision], British Columbia". 2.statcan.gc.ca. Archived from the original on February 10, 2022. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
- "Population and dwelling counts: Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), British Columbia". Statistics Canada. February 9, 2022. Retrieved February 20, 2022.
- "Population and dwelling counts: Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations". Statistics Canada. February 9, 2022. Retrieved March 28, 2022.
- Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics. "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, census metropolitan areas, census agglomerations and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2011 and 2006 censuses". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Archived from the original on June 25, 2013. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
- "Canada 2011 Census Lower Mainland Economic Region". February 8, 2012. Archived from the original on July 22, 2012. Retrieved February 19, 2012.
- Berger, Thomas R. (June 8, 2004). "A City of Neighbourhoods: Report of the 2004 Vancouver Electoral Reform Commission" (PDF). vancouver.ca. City of Vancouver. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 25, 2011.
- "Population by selected ethnic origins, by census metropolitan areas (2006 Census)". Statistics Canada. 2006. Archived from the original on January 15, 2011. Retrieved December 1, 2009.
- "Visible minorities (2006 census)". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on August 10, 2011. Retrieved December 1, 2009.
- "Census Profile 2016 Census Greater Vancouver". Statistics Canada. February 8, 2017. Archived from the original on October 2, 2018. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
- "Visible minority". Statistics Canada. July 24, 2009. Archived from the original on July 27, 2011. Retrieved June 9, 2011.
- Cernetig, Miro (June 30, 2007). "Chinese Vancouver: A decade of change". Vancouver Sun. Canada. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved January 25, 2010.
- "Canada's ethnocultural portrait: Canada". Statistics Canada. 2001. Archived from the original on February 2, 2007. Retrieved January 28, 2007.
- "Census Profile 2016 Census Greater Vancouver". Statistics Canada. February 8, 2017. Archived from the original on December 10, 2018. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
- Hiebert, D., (June 2009). "The Economic Integration of Immigrants in Metropolitan Vancouver". IRPPChoices 15 (7), p. 6. Retrieved July 13, 2009. Archived November 30, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- Sarah-Jane (Saje) Mathieu, "North of the Colour Line: Sleeping Car Porters and the Battle Against Jim Crow on Canadian Rails,1880–1920" Archived June 9, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Labour/Le Travail no. 47 (Spring 2001).
- Accessed 2006-09-27. Archived September 30, 2007, at the Wayback Machine City of Vancouver Community Profiles
- Pendakur, Krishna (December 13, 2005). "Visible Minorities and Aboriginal Peoples in Vancouver's Labour Market". Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. Archived from the original on October 16, 2008. Retrieved January 24, 2010.
- Santos, Henrique (2006). "Portuguese-Canadians and Their Academic Underachievement in High School in British Columbia: The Case of an Invisible Minority". Simon Fraser University. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 13, 2011. Retrieved May 23, 2012.
- "Community Highlights for Vancouver". Statistics Canada. February 1, 2007. Archived from the original on February 14, 2009. Retrieved January 24, 2010.
- "Gay U.S. couples can't get divorces for Canadian marriages". CBC News. September 25, 2009. Archived from the original on September 29, 2009. Retrieved January 24, 2010.
- Burrows, Matthew (July 31, 2008). "Gay clubs build community in Vancouver". The Georgia Straight. Archived from the original on November 27, 2011. Retrieved June 9, 2011.
- Weichel, Andrew (August 2, 2009). "Milk protégé praises Vancouver Pride celebration". CTV News. Archived from the original on August 10, 2011. Retrieved June 9, 2011.
- "Census Profile, 2016 Census Vancouver, City [Census subdivision], British Columbia and Canada [Country]". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on November 3, 2018. Retrieved July 23, 2019.
- "Census Profile, 2016 Census Aboriginal population". Statistics Canada. April 24, 2018. Archived from the original on November 16, 2018. Retrieved November 14, 2018.
- "Census Profile, 2016 Census Ethnic origin population". Statistics Canada. April 24, 2018. Archived from the original on November 17, 2018. Retrieved November 14, 2018.
- "Vancouver Homeless Count 2019" (PDF). City of Vancouver. 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 9, 2021. Retrieved July 2, 2021.
- "Port Metro Vancouver". Port Metro Vancouver. June 4, 2013. Archived from the original on February 10, 2010. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
- "Economy". Vancouver WN City Guide. World New Network. Archived from the original on January 31, 2010. Retrieved July 11, 2009.
- "Film and Television Production in Vancouver". Vancouver Economic Commission. Archived from the original on March 13, 2018. Retrieved March 12, 2018.
- "Discovery Series: Exclusive Roundtable and Office Tour with Daily Hive Vancouver". Greater Vancouver Board of Trade. Archived from the original on November 29, 2018. Retrieved January 28, 2019.
- "Fast Facts about Vancouver's Tourist Industry". Tourism Vancouver. Archived from the original on March 13, 2018. Retrieved March 12, 2018.
- RBC Economics (May 2012). Housing Trends and Affordability (PDF) (Report). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 13, 2006.
- Cox, Wendell; Pavletich, Hugh (2012). 8th Annual Demographia International Housing Affordability Survey: 2012 Ratings for Metropolitan Markets (PDF) (Report). Archived (PDF) from the original on January 23, 2013. Retrieved June 5, 2012.
- Bula, Frances (January 22, 2007). "Vancouver is 13th least affordable city in world". Vancouver Sun. Archived from the original on July 17, 2010. Retrieved January 25, 2010.
- "Demographia International Housing Affordability Survey: 2006" (PDF). Wendell Cox Consultancy. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 11, 2006. Retrieved November 12, 2006.
- "Housing Affordability" (PDF). RBC Financial Group. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 13, 2006. Retrieved September 27, 2006.
- "Survey of Vancouver housing price increase exceeds rest of Canada". BIV Daily Business News. April 9, 2010. Archived from the original on July 28, 2011. Retrieved April 28, 2010.
- "Snow washing: Canada frets about anonymously owned firms – Identity checks to obtain a library card are more onerous than those to form a private firm". The Economist. January 4, 2018. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 14, 2018.
... 2009 the national police force estimated that up to C$15bn ($12bn) was being laundered in the country each year (an estimated annual $2trn is laundered globally). ...
- Bhatty, Ayesha (May 25, 2012). "Canada prepares for an Asian future". BBC News. Archived from the original on May 29, 2012. Retrieved May 29, 2012.
- "Homelessness could triple by 2010: report". CBC News. September 21, 2006. Archived from the original on June 13, 2009. Retrieved January 25, 2010.
- O'Leary, Kim Patrick (2011). "Expo 86". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica-Dominion. Archived from the original on December 28, 2011. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- "Vancouver Charter". Queen's Printer. November 18, 2009. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved November 29, 2009.
- "Vancouver Insite drug-injection facility can stay open". BBC News. September 30, 2011. Archived from the original on September 30, 2011. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
- Smith, Andrea Barbara (1981). The Origins of the NPA: A Study in Vancouver Politics (MA). University of British Columbia.
- "Conflicts and consensus in Vancouver's political history". Vancouver Sun. Retrieved March 3, 2022.
- "Vancouver Votes Municipal Election 2008". City of Vancouver. Archived from the original on March 10, 2021. Retrieved November 29, 2009.
- Zussman, Richard; Ferreras, Jesse (June 30, 2018). "B.C. municipal election 2018: Vancouver results - BC | Globalnews.ca". globalnews.ca. Archived from the original on October 9, 2018. Retrieved February 12, 2019.
- "Vancouver 2018 Budget Highlights" (PDF). January 25, 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 8, 2018.
- "Who is Metro Vancouver". Metro Vancouver. Archived from the original on August 20, 2012. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
- "Find MLA By Community". www.leg.bc.ca. Retrieved April 12, 2022.
- Steacy, Lisa (April 2, 2022). "Voters in Vancouver-Quilchena set to head to the polls for provincial byelection". CTV News Vancouver. Bell Media. Retrieved April 12, 2022.
- "2018 VPD Annual Report" (PDF). VPD. 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 23, 2019. Retrieved January 11, 2020.
- "2018 Annual Report" (PDF). City of Vancouver. 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 23, 2019. Retrieved January 11, 2020.
- "Mounted Squad: Patrol District One". Vancouver Police Department. January 18, 2005. Archived from the original on February 21, 2005. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
- "Operations Division". City of Vancouver. January 3, 2006. Archived from the original on May 17, 2006. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
- Cohen, Jackie (March 31, 2001). "Getting Dot-Bombed in Vancouver". Wired. Archived from the original on February 11, 2010. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
- "Growbusters". CBC News. July 26, 2000. Archived from the original on May 27, 2007. Retrieved January 17, 2007.
- Burrows, Mathew (February 21, 2002). "Who You Gonna Call?". The Republic. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
- "Police-reported crime statistics" (PDF). Statistics Canada. July 22, 2019. Archived from the original on January 11, 2020. Retrieved January 11, 2020.
- "Police-reported Crime Severity Index". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2009. Archived from the original on June 9, 2011. Retrieved December 1, 2009.
- "Gun crime in Metro Vancouver highest per capita in Canada". Canada.com. February 20, 2008. Archived from the original on February 14, 2009. Retrieved April 26, 2009.
- "Firearm-related violent crime" (PDF). StatsCan. 2017. Archived from the original on January 11, 2020. Retrieved January 11, 2020.
- "200 Injured In Vancouver". The New York Times. June 16, 1994. Archived from the original on March 16, 2008. Retrieved July 14, 2008.
- Wyshynski, Greg (June 16, 2011). "Shocking scenes from the Vancouver Game 7 riots". Yahoo!. Archived from the original on June 18, 2011. Retrieved June 16, 2011.
- "Vancouver seeking new ways to tackle city's growing litter problem". The Globe and Mail. February 8, 2016. Archived from the original on September 22, 2020. Retrieved January 25, 2019.
- "Needles, needles everywhere. Ideas for ridding Vancouver of them? Not so many". Vancouver Sun. Archived from the original on March 26, 2019. Retrieved January 25, 2019.
- "Needle exchange & disposal". Vancouver Coastal Health. Archived from the original on October 17, 2018. Retrieved January 25, 2019.
- "Land Force Western Area". National Defence Canada. August 12, 2008. Archived from the original on May 5, 2009. Retrieved July 17, 2009.
- "Land Force Western Area Units". National Defence Canada. September 30, 2009. Archived from the original on May 6, 2009. Retrieved July 17, 2009.
- "The Naval Reserve: Nearest Units". National Defence Canada. January 29, 2010. Archived from the original on February 25, 2009. Retrieved July 17, 2009.
- "Jericho Beach Flying Boat Station". Royal Canadian Legion, BC/Yukon Command. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved July 17, 2009.
- "About Us". Vancouver School Board. 2011. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved June 14, 2011.
- "District Review Report, School District No. 39 Vancouver" (PDF). British Columbia Education. 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 13, 2011. Retrieved June 14, 2011.
- "VSB webcat". Vancouver School Board. Archived from the original on November 14, 2016.
- "Carte des écoles Archived August 17, 2015, at the Wayback Machine." Conseil scolaire francophone de la Colombie-Britanique. Retrieved on January 22, 2015.
- "FISA History". Federation of Independent School Associations. 2011. Archived from the original on April 16, 2011. Retrieved June 14, 2011.
- "About UBC". University of British Columbia. 2011. Archived from the original on August 23, 2011. Retrieved June 14, 2011.
- "About SFU". Simon Fraser University. 2011. Archived from the original on June 4, 2011. Retrieved June 14, 2011.
- "QS World University Rankings - 2022". QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. Archived from the original on December 6, 2021. Retrieved September 2, 2021.
- "University of British Columbia". QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. Archived from the original on August 25, 2021. Retrieved September 2, 2021.
- "Times Higher Education's The World University Rankings 2010". Archived from the original on September 17, 2010. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
- "Simon Fraser University". QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. Archived from the original on January 16, 2022. Retrieved September 2, 2021.
- "Emily Carr University of Art + Design". Emily Carr University of Art and Design. 2011. Archived from the original on June 4, 2011. Retrieved June 14, 2011.
- "Message from the President of Vancouver Film School, James Griffin". Vancouver Film School. 2011. Archived from the original on December 19, 2010. Retrieved June 14, 2011.
- Hall, Neal & Lee, Jeff (March 9, 2012)."Vancouver Playhouse Theatre Company to close" Archived December 12, 2018, at the Wayback Machine Vancouver Sun
- "Vancouver, British Columbia". What's Filming?. Archived from the original on December 22, 2016. Retrieved December 22, 2016.
- Edwards, Ian (September 22, 1997). "On set: Cold Squad". Playback. Brunico Communications. Archived from the original on October 21, 2016. Retrieved October 23, 2016.
- Edwards, Ian (October 11, 2004). "Groundbreaking cop series takes final bow". Playback. Brunico Communications. Archived from the original on September 11, 2016. Retrieved October 23, 2016.
- Heeb, Emily (February 12, 2016). "Did you know These 20 TV Shows were filmed in Vancouver?". British Columbia Magazine. Archived from the original on January 7, 2017. Retrieved December 22, 2016.
- "Vancouver Public Library Frequently Asked Questions". Vancouver Public Library. Archived from the original on June 23, 2010. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
- "Welcome from Kathleen Bartels, Director of the Vancouver Art Gallery". Vancouver Art Gallery. Archived from the original on November 7, 2007. Retrieved November 1, 2007.
- Baker, Kenneth (January 9, 2009). "Photography with an eye for social relevance". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on May 25, 2011. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
- Sarah Milroy "Is Arden our next greatest photographer?" Globe and Mail (October 27, 2007): R1.
- Marsha Lederman "Behind the Lens: The Vancouver School Debate" Globe and Mail (October 20, 2007): R13.
- Intertidal: Vancouver Art & Artists / E-Flux Archived February 11, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. E-flux.com. Retrieved June 9, 2011.
- "Home – Museum of Anthropology at UBC". Archived from the original on July 30, 2019. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
- Buium, Greg (April 15, 2005). "Sound and Fury: Reliving Vancouver's punk explosion". CBC News. Archived from the original on August 27, 2006. Retrieved January 23, 2007.
- Gooch, Bryan N. S. "Music in Vancouver". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007.
- Gasher, Mike (2002). Hollywood North: The Feature Film Industry in British Columbia. UBC Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-7748-0968-9. Archived from the original on January 1, 2016. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- McPhail, Thomas L. (March 8, 2010). Global Communication: Theories, Stakeholders, and Trends. John Wiley & Sons. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-4443-3030-4. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- Lavery, David (January 15, 2010). The Essential Cult Tv Reader. University Press of Kentucky. p. 261. ISBN 978-0-8131-7365-8. Archived from the original on January 1, 2016. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- Ken MacIntyre. Reel Vancouver. Vancouver: Whitecap Books, 1996. p. 133.
- "British Columbia Film Commission Production Statistics 2008" (PDF). BC Film Commission. 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 28, 2011. Retrieved December 5, 2009.
- "Vancouver Film Industry". Canada.com. Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved December 5, 2009.
- Cahute, Larissa (September 24, 2014). "New Vancouver radio station will be aimed at entire South Asian community". Vancouver Desi. Archived from the original on September 26, 2014. Retrieved September 25, 2014.
- Smith, Charlie (October 6, 2009). "Canwest seeks bankruptcy protection for broadcasting assets and National Post". The Georgia Straight. Archived from the original on December 14, 2009. Retrieved December 5, 2009.
- Rupp, Shannon (March 16, 2005). "CanWest Metro Move Preserves Daily Dominance". The Tyee. Archived from the original on February 11, 2009. Retrieved December 1, 2009.
- "Editor's Picks: Media". Georgia Straight. September 24, 2009. Archived from the original on September 23, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2011.
- Davis, Chuck. "1885–1891". The History of Metropolitan Vancouver. Archived from the original on July 23, 2007. Retrieved November 23, 2006.
- Davis, Chuck. "1958". The History of Metropolitan Vancouver. Archived from the original on January 3, 2007. Retrieved November 14, 2006.
- Snider, Drew (June 1, 2007). "Light Rail vs. Trolley Bus". Masstransitmag.com. Archived from the original on June 13, 2012. Retrieved May 30, 2012.
- Millar, Royce (September 11, 2006). "No freeways puts Vancouver on top". The Age. Melbourne. Archived from the original on November 6, 2007. Retrieved November 14, 2006.
- "Driving Lessons". Vancouver Magazine. (June 2007).
- "Traffic entering Vancouver, 1986 to 2005". City of Vancouver. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved May 30, 2007.
- "Vancouver Has Canada's Worst Traffic Congestion: Report". The Huffington Post B.C. October 11, 2012. Archived from the original on February 16, 2013. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
- "Vancouver has worst traffic congestion in North America: report". Global BC. November 6, 2013. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved December 1, 2013.
- "Information Bulletin: Evergreen Line RFP released" (PDF). British Columbia Ministry of Transportation. November 9, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 5, 2012. Retrieved November 10, 2011.
- "Plans and Projects". www.translink.ca. Retrieved March 3, 2022.
- "Cycling statistics". City of Vancouver. 2009. Archived from the original on December 1, 2010. Retrieved December 1, 2009.
- "Vancouver unveils bike-share program Mobi". CTV News. May 21, 2016. Archived from the original on October 2, 2016. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
- "Facts & Stats". Vancouver International Airport. Archived from the original on June 14, 2012. Retrieved June 9, 2011.
- British Columbia: Business and Investment Environment. Government of Canada. Retrieved August 2, 2009. Archived February 4, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
- "BC Ferries". British Columbia Ferry Services Inc. 2009. Archived from the original on October 21, 2009. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- "About the Park Board". Vancouver Board of Parks and Recreation. Archived from the original on December 1, 2010. Retrieved December 5, 2009.
- "Recreation: Beaches". Vancouver Park Board. 2009. Archived from the original on December 2, 2010. Retrieved December 5, 2009.
- "Capilano River". Metro Vancouver. 2009. Archived from the original on February 3, 2010. Retrieved December 5, 2009.
- Grover, Brian (2009). "Baden-Powell Centennial Trail". BC Car-Free. Archived from the original on April 2, 2010. Retrieved December 5, 2009.
- "Hastings Racecourse". Archived from the original on July 23, 2019. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
- "Canada's World Cup team opens camp in Vancouver". Canadian Soccer Association. January 17, 2007. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved December 5, 2009.
- Mara, Jonathan. "Welcome from the President". Vancouver Titans. Archived from the original on March 1, 2010. Retrieved December 5, 2009.
- Lee, Jenny (July 30, 2008). "World Ultimate Championships come to Vancouver". Vancouver Sun. Archived from the original on January 1, 2011. Retrieved December 5, 2009.
- "Regional differences in obesity". Health Reports. Statistics Canada. August 22, 2006. Archived from the original on June 9, 2011. Retrieved December 5, 2009.
- Kirkey, Sharon (August 23, 2006). "Suburban Sprawl". CanWest News Service. Archived from the original on July 17, 2010. Retrieved December 5, 2009.
- "Board Strategic Plan". metrovancouver. Archived from the original on July 9, 2021. Retrieved August 23, 2021.
- "BC Hydro quick facts" (PDF). BC Hydro. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 27, 2021. Retrieved August 23, 2021.
- "Comprehensively Answers How green is my city?". greenscore.eco. Archived from the original on August 19, 2021. Retrieved August 23, 2021.
- Runnalls, Jeremy (May 20, 2015). "Canada's greenest mayor". Corporate Knights. Archived from the original on August 17, 2019. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
- "Greenest City Action Plan". City of Vancouver. Archived from the original on July 23, 2019. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
- "Vancouver votes to ban single-use straws, foam cups and take-out containers". CTV News. May 17, 2018. Archived from the original on July 29, 2018. Retrieved July 28, 2018.
- Woods, Melanie (May 17, 2018). "Vancouver to be first major Canadian city to ban plastic straws". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on August 10, 2018. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
- Smith, Patrick J.; Stewart, Kennedy (2003). Beavers and Cats Revisited: Creatures and Tenants versus Municipal Charter(s) and Home Rule (PDF). Municipal–Federal–Provincial Relations Conference. School of Public Policy, Queen's University. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 26, 2011. Retrieved December 1, 2009.
- "Vancouver Twinning Relationships" (PDF). City of Vancouver. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 5, 2011. Retrieved December 5, 2009.
- "Eight Cities/Six Ports: Yokohama's Sister Cities/Sister Ports". Yokohama Convention & Visitors Bureau. Archived from the original on August 27, 2009. Retrieved December 5, 2009.
- "International and consular relationships". City of Vancouver. Archived from the original on February 28, 2018. Retrieved April 8, 2016.
- Constance, Brissenden (2006). Vancouver: A Pictorial Celebration Including Vancouver Island, Victoria, and Whistler. Penn Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1-4027-2386-5. Archived from the original on December 13, 2021. Retrieved November 22, 2020.
- Jollota, Pat (2007). Downtown Vancouver. Arcadia. ISBN 978-0-7385-2959-2. Archived from the original on October 19, 2021. Retrieved November 22, 2020.
- Lance, Berelowitz (2005). Dream City: Vancouver and the Global Imagination. Douglas & McIntyre. ISBN 1-55365-170-7. Archived from the original on August 15, 2021. Retrieved November 22, 2020.
- Vogel, Aynsley; Wyse, Dana (2009). Vancouver : a history in photographs. Heritage House Pub. Co. ISBN 978-1-894974-88-2. Archived from the original on December 13, 2021. Retrieved November 22, 2020.
- Official website